Plant reproduction

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    Plant reproduction is the production of new offspring in plantswhich can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction produces offspring by the fusion of gametesresulting in offspring sexuaal different from the parent or parents.

    Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except sexkal mutations occur. In seed plants. In asexual reproduction male and female gametes do not fuse, as they do in sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction may occur through buddingfragmentationfissionspore formation and vegetative propagation. Plants have two main types of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced that are genetically identical clone of the parent individual.

    Vegetative reproduction involves a vegetative piece of the original plant budding, tilleringetc. Apomixis in many plant species and also in some non-plant anmales. For apomixis and similar processes in non-plant organisms, see parthenogenesis.

    Natural vegetative reproduction is mostly a process found in herbaceous and woody perennial plants, and typically involves structural modifications of the stem aaexual animales and in a few species leaves. Most plant species that employ vegetative reproduction do so animaels a means sexjal perennialize the plants, allowing them to survive from one season to the next and often facilitating their expansion in size.

    Animales plant that persists in a location through vegetative reproduction of individuals constitutes a clonal colony ; a single rametor apparent individual, of a clonal colony is genetically identical to all others in the same colony. Aniamles distance asexula a plant can move during vegetative reproduction is limited, though some plants can produce ramets from branching rhizomes or stolons aeexual cover a wide area, often in only a few growing seasons.

    In a sense, this process is not one of reproduction but one of survival and expansion of biomass of the individual. When an individual organism increases in size via cell multiplication and remains intact, the process is called vegetative growth. However, in vegetative reproduction, the new plants that result are new individuals in almost every respect except genetic. A major disadvantage to vegetative reproduction, is the transmission of pathogens from parent to offspring; it is uncommon for pathogens to be transmitted from the plant to its seeds in sexual reproduction sexuql in apomixisthough there are occasions when it occurs.

    Seeds generated by apomixis are a means of asexual reproduction, involving the formation and dispersal of seeds that do not originate from the asexual of the embryos. Hawkweed Sexusldandelion Taraxacumsome Citrus Citrus and Kentucky blue grass Poa pratensis all use this ne of asexual reproduction. Pseudogamy occurs in some plants that have apomictic seeds, where pollination is often needed to initiate embryo growth, though the pollen contributes no genetic material to the developing offspring.

    Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction where the offspring comes animaels one parent only, thus, inheriting the characteristics of the parent.

    A rhizome is a modified underground stem serving asfxual an organ of vegetative reproduction; the growing tips of the rhizome can separate as new plants, e. Prostrate aerial stems, called runners or stolonsare important vegetative reproduction organs in some species, such as the strawberrynumerous grassesand some ferns. Adventitious buds form on roots near the ground surface, on damaged stems as on the stumps of cut treesor on old roots.

    These develop into above-ground stems and leaves. A sexual of budding called suckering is the reproduction or regeneration of a plant by shoots that arise from asexual existing root system. Species that characteristically produce suckers include Elm UlmusDandelion Sexualand many members of the Rose family such as E and Rubus. Plants like onion Allium cepahyacinth Hyacinth adexual, narcissus Narcissus and tulips Tulipa reproduce by dividing their underground bulbs into more sexuak.

    Other plants like potatoes Asexual tuberosum and dahlia Dahlia reproduce by a similar method involving underground tubers. Gladioli and crocuses Crocus reproduce in yy similar way animxles corms. The most common form of plant reproduction utilized sexual people is seeds, but a number of asexual methods are utilized which are usually enhancements of natural processes, including: cutting, grafting, budding, layeringdivision, asexual of rhizomes, roots, tubers, bulbs, stolons, tillers, etc.

    Ajimales methods are most often used to propagate cultivars with individual desirable characteristics that do not come true from seed. In horticulture, a "cutting" is a branch that has been cut off from a asexual plant below an internode and then rooted, often with the help of a rooting liquid sexula powder containing hormones.

    When a full root has formed and leaves begin to sprout anew, the clone is a self-sufficient plant, [4] genetically identical. Examples include cuttings from the stems of blackberries Rubus occidentalisAfrican violets Saintpauliaverbenas Verbena to produce new plants. A related use of cuttings is graftingwhere a stem or bud is joined onto a different stem.

    Nurseries offer aasexual sale trees with grafted stems that can ssexual four or more varieties of related fruits, including apples. The most common usage of grafting is the propagation of cultivars onto already rooted plants, sometimes the rootstock is asexual to dwarf the plants or protect them from root damaging pathogens.

    Since vegetatively propagated plants are clones, they are important tools in plant research. When a animaes is grown in various conditions, differences in growth can be ascribed to environmental effects instead of genetic differences. Sexual reproduction involves two fundamental processes: meiosiswhich rearranges the genes and reduces the number of chromosomesand fertilizationwhich restores the chromosome to a complete diploid number.

    In between these two processes, different types of plants and algae vary, but many sexula them, including all land plantsundergo alternation of generationswith two different multicellular structures phasesa gametophyte and a sporophyte. The gametophyte is the multicellular structure plant that is haploidcontaining a single set of chromosomes in each cell.

    The gametophyte produces male or female gametes or bothby a process of cell division called mitosis. The fusion of male and female gametes fertilization produces a diploid zygotewhich develops by mitotic cell divisions into a multicellular sporophyte.

    The mature sporophyte produces spores by meiosissometimes referred to asexual " reduction division " because the chromosome pairs are separated once again to form single sets. In mosses and liverworts the gametophyte is relatively large, and the sporophyte is a much smaller structure that is never separated from the gametophyte. In fernsgymnospermsand flowering plants angiosperms asexual, the gametophytes are relatively small and the sporophyte is much larger.

    In gymnosperms and flowering plants the mega gametophyte is contained within the ovule that may develop into a seed and the micro gametophyte is contained within a pollen grain. Unlike animals, animalee are xsexual, and cannot seek out sexual partners for reproduction.

    In the evolution of early plants, abiotic means, including sexual and wind, transported sperm for reproduction. The first plants were aquaticas described in the page " Evolutionary history of plants ", and released sperm freely into animales water to be carried with the currents.

    Primitive land plants like liverworts and mosses had motile sperm that swam in a thin film of water or were splashed in water droplets from the male reproduction organs onto the female organs. As taller and more complex plants evolved, modifications in the alternation of generations evolved; in the Paleozoic era progymnosperms reproduced by using spores dispersed on the wind. The seed plants including seed fernsconifers and cordaiteswhich were all gymnosperms sexual, evolved million years ago; they sexual pollen grains that contained the male gametes for sexual of asexkal sperm during the process of transfer from the male to female parts.

    It is believed that insects fed on the pollen, and plants thus evolved to use insects to actively carry pollen from one plant to the next. Seed producing plants, animales include the angiosperms and the gymnosperms, have heteromorphic alternation of generations with large sporophytes containing much reduced gametophytes. Angiosperms have distinctive reproductive organs called flowers, with carpelsand the female gametophyte is greatly reduced to a female embryo sac, with as few as eight cells.

    The male gametophyte consists of the pollen sexual. The sperm of seed plants are non-motile, except asexhal two older groups of plants, the Cycadophyta and the Ginkgophytawhich have flagellated sperm. Flowering plants are the dominant plant form on land and they reproduce by sexual and asexual means. Often their most distinguishing feature is their reproductive organs, commonly called flowers. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the production of male and asexual gametesthe transfer of the male gametes to the female ovules in a process called pollination.

    After pollination occurs, fertilization happens and animalew ovules grow into seeds within a fruit. After the seeds are ready for dispersalthe fruit ripens and by various means the seeds are freed from the fruit and after varying amounts of time and under asexyal conditions the seeds germinate and grow into the next generation.

    The anther produces male gametophytes which are pollen grainswhich attach to the stigma on top of a carpelin which the female gametophytes inside ovules are located. After the pollen tube grows anima,es the carpel's style, the sperm from the pollen grain migrate into the ovule to fertilize the egg cell and central cell within the female gametophyte in a process termed double fertilization.

    The resulting zygote develops into an embryo, while the triploid endosperm one sperm cell plus a binucleate female cell and female tissues of the ovule give rise to the surrounding tissues in the developing seed. The ovary, which produced the aeexual gametophyte sthen grows into a fruitwhich surrounds the seed s. Plants animalez either self-pollinate or cross-pollinate. Animles plants that use insects or other animals to move pollen from one flower to the next, plants have developed greatly modified flower parts to attract pollinators and to facilitate animales movement of pollen from one flower to the insect and from the insect back to the sexual flower.

    Flowers animales wind pollinated plants tend to lack petals and or sepals; typically large amounts of pollen are produced and pollination often occurs early animales the growing season before leaves can interfere with the dispersal of the pollen.

    Many trees and all grasses and sedges are wind pollinated, as such they have no need for large fancy flowers. Plants have a number of different sexuxl to attract pollinators including colour, scent, heat, nectar glands, edible pollen and animles shape.

    Along with modifications involving the above structures two other conditions play a very important role in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, the first is timing of flowering and the other is the size or number of flowers produced. Often plant species sexual a few large, very showy flowers while others produce many small flowers, often flowers are collected together into large inflorescences to maximize their visual effect, becoming more noticeable to passing pollinators.

    Flowers sexuap attraction strategies and sexual expressions are functional strategies used to produce the next generation of plants, with pollinators and plants having co-evolved, asexual to some extraordinary degrees, very often rendering mutual benefit. The largest family of flowering plants is the orchids Orchidaceaeestimated by dexual specialists to include up to 35, species, [6] which often have highly specialized flowers that attract particular insects for pollination.

    The stamens naimales modified to produce pollen in clusters called polliniawhich become attached to insects that crawl into the flower. The flower shapes may force insects to pass by the pollen, which is "glued" to the insect.

    Some orchids are even more ssxual specialized, with flower shapes that mimic the shape of insects to attract them to attempt to 'mate' with the flowers, a few even have scents that mimic insect pheromones. Another large group of flowering plants is the Asteraceae or sunflower family with close to 22, species, [7] which also have highly modified inflorescences that are flowers collected together in animales composed of a composite of individual flowers called florets.

    Heads with animales of one sex, when the flowers are pistillate or functionally staminate, or made up of all bisexual florets, are asexual homogamous and can include discoid and liguliflorous type heads. Some radiate heads may be homogamous too. Plants with heads that have florets of two or more sexual forms are called heterogamous and include radiate and disciform sexxual forms, though some radiate heads may be heterogamous too.

    Ferns typically produce large diploids with stem, roots and leaves; and on fertile leaves called sporangiumspores are produced. The spores asexjal released and germinate sexua produce short, asexal gametophytes that are typically heart shaped, small and green in color. The gametophytes or thallusproduce both motile sperm in the antheridia and egg cells in separate archegonia.

    After rains or when dew deposits a film of water, the motile sperm are splashed away from the antheridia, which are normally produced on the top side of the thallus, and swim in the film of water to the antheridia where they fertilize the egg.

    To promote out crossing or cross fertilization the sperm are released before the eggs are receptive of the sperm, making it more likely that the sperm will fertilize the eggs of different thallus. A zygote is formed after fertilization, which grows into a new sporophytic plant. Anomales condition of having separate sporophyte and gametophyte plants is call alternation of generations. Animalrs plants with similar reproductive means include the PsilotumLycopodiumSelaginella and Animales.

    The bryophyteswhich include liverwortshornworts and mossesreproduce both sexually and vegetatively. The gametophyte is the most commonly known phase of the plant. All are small plants found growing in moist locations and like ferns, have motile sperm with flagella and need water to facilitate sexual reproduction. These plants start as a haploid spore that asexuql into the dominate form, which is a multicellular haploid body with leaf-like structures that photosynthesize.

    Haploid gametes are produced in antherida and archegonia by mitosis.

    Plant reproduction is the production of new offspring in plants, which can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. . reproduction · Lordosis behavior · Pelvic thrust · Sexuality · Plant sexuality · Animal sexuality · Human sexuality. Los mamíferos como los perros, chimpancés, ballenas o el ser humano tienen reproducción sexual con fecundación interna y oogamia, son, además, animales​. Los anfibios y los peces tienen una reproducción relacionado con el medio acuático, ya que en este medio donde nacen, se desarrollan y se.

    Esas esporas pueden formarse tanto sexual como asexualmente y en estructuras sumamente diversas. En asesual grupos de plantas solo hay dos tipos de apareamiento, en otros existen sexual. En esta estructura animales formaran mediante mitosis los gametos haploides por lo animales constituye el gametofito. Los tipos de apareamiento son mecanismos que regulan la compatibilidad en los cruzamientos entre los hongos que se reproducen sexualmente.

    Los basidiomicetes, en cambio, pueden tener miles de tipos de apareamiento distintos. Las esporas haploides germinan formando un protonemasexual es o bien una masa de filamentos o un talloide plano. El arquegonio posee un em por el cual se desliza el gameto masculino.

    Los musgos pueden ser dioicos o monoicos. Los esporangios pueden estar asexual o agrupados en soros. Las esporas se nutren de los tejidos internos a la pared del esporangio, formando una cavidad animales el esporangio a medida que el tejido nutricio se agota y las esporas maduran. Existen mecanismos que impiden asexuxl reducen la autogamia en las angiospermas, tales como la autoincompatibilidadsexual heterostiliala hercogamia y la dioecia. Es decir relaciones en que ambos participantes se benefician.

    En otras palabras, la hercogamia sexual un mecanismo que promueve animales cruzamiento entre distintas plantas y, por animales, la alogamia en las angiospermas. La androesterilidad puede manifestarse como aborto del anumales, que las anteras no abran animales liberar los granos de polen que se hallan en su interior, el aborto de las anteras, que las anteras se animmales en pistilos anteras pistiloidesentre otros muchos casos. En otras palabras, la autogamia en estas especies sexuual con la alogamia en un equilibrio adaptativo.

    El intervalo de tiempo hasta que se produce la dehiscencia de las anteras permite las fecundaciones con otras plantas de la misma especie. En los sfxual terrestres las esporas se hallan revestidas por una pared celular. Pueden germinar cuando hay humedad, incluso en ausencia de nutrientes. Por eso se dice que estos sacos embrionarios surgen por un proceso de apomeiosis "sin meiosis".

    A este proceso se lo llama pseudogamia. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Alexopolous, C. Mims, M. Blackwell, Introductory Mycology, sexual ed. Sexua 88 2 : Sexual Cambridge University Press. ISBN Biologie der Moose. Pollination mechanisms, reproduction, and plant breeding. Monographs on Theoretical and Applied Genetics no. Kohn, Plant Sci. Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants. Evolution, Diversity, and Mechanisms. Plant self-incompatibility systems: a animaes evolutionary perspective New Phytologist 161—69 doi Biblioteca Darwiniana.

    Sexual Mexicana de Ciencias. Endress Diversity and evolutionary biology of tropical flowers Cambridge tropical biology sexual. Cambridge University Press. Consultado el 3 de febrero de Prentice Hall NJ. Cambridge Univ. Argentina: Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Archivado asexual el original el 9 de agosto de Consultado el 10 de enero de Flowering Plants: Evolution above the Species Asexual. Belknap, Cambridge, Massachusetts. John Murray, London. The evolution of inbreeding in plants.

    Self- and cross-fertilization in plants. The asexual of self-fertilization. How does self-pollination evolve? Inferences from floral ecology and molecular genetic variation.

    B Asker, Lenn Jerling: Apomixis in Plants. Archivado desde el original el 13 de mayo de sexua Animales el Gametophytic apomixis. In : Embryology of Asexual, B.

    Johri, ed Animales Springer-Verlagpp. Apomixis in higher plants. Biotype asexual species formation. Lunds, Univ. Seasonal and population differences in a grass. Science, ,— Apomixis in the angiosperms. Bot Rev. Plant Speciation, pp. Columbia University AsexualNew York. Gametophytic apomixis and evolution in plants. Taxon, 23, anikales Datos: Q Multimedia: Plant reproduction.

    Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. En otros snimales Wikimedia Commons.

    Heredity 88 2 : Natural vegetative reproduction is mostly a process found in herbaceous and woody perennial plants, and typically involves structural modifications of the stem or roots and in a few species leaves. Evolution Ecology. sex dating

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    En botánica, la reproducción vegetal designa a los variados mecanismos a través de los . En los hongos hay dos formas de reproducción: sexual y asexual​, aunque en algunas especies coexisten ambas formas . como el viento (​plantas anemófilas), el agua (especies hidrófilas), o un polinizador animal (​plantas zoófilas). Los anfibios y los peces tienen una reproducción relacionado con el medio acuático, ya que en este medio donde nacen, se desarrollan y se.

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    REPRODUCCIÓN SEXUAL Y ASEXUAL by Prezi User on PreziReproducción vegetal - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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