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    Children and teenagers who are exposed mfdia sex through the the are more likely to engage in sexual activity than those who are not, according to new research. A study thd an American team has found a direct relationship sex the amount of sexual content children see and their level sex sexual activity or the intentions to have sex in the future. The survey, published media the Journal the Adolescent Health and online, claims that film, television, music and magazines may act as a kind of "sexual super i for teenagers seeking information about sex.

    It sex suggests that the media have at least as sex an influence on sexual behaviour as media or a child's relationship with their parents and peers. More than 1, American children between the ages of 12 and 15 were asked to list the kinds of media they were exposed to regularly.

    They also answered questions about their health and levels of sexual activity, including whether they went on dates, kissed, had oral sex or full sex. Researchers then examined the sexual content of items on the list, which included teen magazines, teen movies and TV programmes. They looked for examples of romantic relationships, nudity, sexual innuendo, touching, kissing, media and sexual intercourse.

    The study found that media, TV programmes, music and magazines usually portrayed sex as "risk-free". Sex was usually between unmarried couples and examples of sex condoms or other contraception were "extremely rare". The study concluded: "The the relationship between media and adolescents' sexual expression the be due to the media's role as an important source of sexual socialisation for teenagers.

    The average age of the children was Television industry. Reuse this content. Most popular.

    This chapter examines scientific theory and research regarding the effects of sexual content in the mass media on children's and adolescents' sexual beliefs. There is a major disconnect between what mainstream media portray—casual sex and sexuality with no consequences—and what children. In the past several decades, researchers have spent continuous efforts on exploring how sexual content in the media influences individuals' perceptions of sex.

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    Sex and the Media

    There is growing concern about young people's exposure to sexual content through television and other electronic media and about its potential effects on their sexual attitudes, beliefs, and mevia.

    Researchers have documented the growing prevalence of sexual talk and portrayals of sexual behavior in televised media, as well as associations between adolescent viewing patterns and their sexual activities. We reviewed the current scientific literature on adolescents and sex in the media—using searches of MEDLINE—and the psychological and media literature.

    The emphasis was on rigorous research and included accessing the expertise of health care professionals and other knowledgeable sources on the media. The available research does not adequately address the effects of exposure to sexual content in the media on adolescent beliefs, knowledge, intentions, and behaviors.

    Similarly, research on sexual content of the Internet, in video games or other handheld devices, or in the multitude of other mrdia media has been scant. Although sexual content in the media can affect any age group, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable. Adolescents may be exposed to sexual content mefia the media during a developmental period when gender roles, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors are being shaped.

    Analyses of broadcast media content indicate that, on average, teenaged viewers see incidents of sexual behavior on network television at prime time each week, 8 with portrayals of three to four times as many sexual activities sex between unmarried partners as between spouses.

    Survey data show that adolescents' access to and use of media as sources of information are substantial. In a national study, 8 high school students reported an average of 2. Policy makers and health professionals have long been concerned about sex sexual activity in the teenaged population mfdia the risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, media infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV.

    Among adolescent girls in the United States aged between 15 and 17 years, 75 per 1, become pregnant each year, 18 a rate two to seven times higher than rates in other industrialized nations. What we know about the potential effects of televised sexual content on adolescents is based largely on content analyses of media that quantify levels of sexual material and track trends from year to year.

    In addition to content analyses, correlational studies have media sociodemographic factors for example, sex, age, and ethnicity to adolescents' viewing preferences and to their understanding and interpretation of sexual material tthe the media. Findings media that adolescent girls choose network television programs with sexual content more often than do adolescent boys 25 and mddia more time watching it, often media the company of parents.

    Other research indicates that ethnicity media an important role in the viewing choices. Compared with their white peers, African Americans spend more time watching television, are more likely to choose fictional programming with African American characters, and are media likely to perceive those characters as realistic. Age or stage of development media influences comprehension and interpretation of sexual content. In a study of the innuendo on television, 29 year-old youths were less likely to understand suggestive material than and year-olds.

    We could not tue comparable studies of developmental influences on boys' understanding and interpretation of sexual content. A few studies have assessed the associations between the degree and nature of adolescent exposure to sexual content and their sexual attitudes and behaviors. The recent study of African American girls aged 14 to 18 years found that teens the either multiple sexual partners or a history sex sexually transmitted infections reported a higher rate of viewing television shows that depicted women as sexual objects or prizes.

    Brown and Newcomer 34 found that television viewing patterns differed by the sexual status of the adolescent virgin versus sexually activewith thf active teens viewing more television with a high level of sexual content. Determining whether exposure to sexual content encouraged sexual experimentation, or vice versa, was not possible. This is a key unanswered question because of the lack of longitudinal research in this field.

    Many theories have been advanced to explain the effects of media on behavior. Research on exposure to violent content in media media provides some support for these views. Other promising work appears in research on televised alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking. Rather, sex effects of alcohol advertisements depend on the extent to which young people like and attend to them. Medja sex humor are key elements in determining liking and attention.

    Importantly, this research used statistical modeling that showed that attention to alcohol advertising increases adolescent drinking, whereas drinking does not influence attention to alcohol advertising.

    Although research lags behind technology, resources are available that support interventions by medical professionals, parents, and others table 1. Physicians should address preadolescent and adolescent patients' use of electronic media and the Internet, television viewing patterns, and viewing of R- or X-rated movies or videos when taking a thorough medical history to assess for risk behavior and as a mechanism for discussing sexual knowledge and plans.

    Media guidelines exist on the recommended amount of time that adolescents should spend viewing television or other swx. The many parents and physicians, the barometer of overuse is an amount greater than we or our children use the media. The main concern for practitioners should be whether television or other electronic media use is interfering with an adolescent patient's ability to function effectively in other spheres of life. Does media viewing cut into homework time or other sex activities like athletics or hobbies?

    Are teenagers absorbed in long hours of solitary viewing or game playing in their bedrooms without supervision or oversight? Are they modeling their behavior on that of performers or dramatic characters? Is this behavior inappropriate or harmful for their age or stage of development?

    Are adults aware of the media influence? Asking adolescents about their media viewing can give the physician or parent the opportunity to detect any feelings of depression or alienation. The adolescent may reveal unrealistic expectations about physical attractiveness and unhealthy dieting and exercise practices.

    Suggested areas for inquiry are presented in table 2. Questions to ask adolescents about their use of the media, issues to address, and concerns. The importance the supervision and guidance in the media choices of adolescents and their volume of use should be emphasized to parents and concerned adults.

    Joint sex or participation may be the best option. When joint viewing is not possible, parents and guardians should be encouraged to take advantage of the television V chip and screening software for computers to reduce inappropriate access. Finally, adults in all areas of adolescents' lives need to help teenagers the evaluate the media and it's often unrealistic representation of characters, products, behavior, and life situations.

    Teaching adolescents to be critical consumers of electronic media sex the best prevention strategy. Simple exposure to sexual content in the media will not make teens deny or ignore values and information they have absorbed from families, school, religious teachings, and other respected adults. Longitudinal studies of young people could provide a better understanding of how sexual portrayals in the media are integrated into adolescents' beliefs about the risks and rewards of engaging in sex and their intention to act on these beliefs.

    Future research must also take into account the importance of parental involvement in adolescents' use of the media, the degree of adolescents' understanding of the unreal nature the the media, teens' possible identification with fictional characters or highly visible media personalities, the norms modeled by parents and peers, and adolescents' own understanding of the consequences of health sex behaviors.

    Adolescents are exposed to many sexual images and messages on television mrdia are almost universally presented in a positive light with little discussion of potential risks and adverse consequences.

    Adolescents use the media as sources of information about sex, drugs, AIDS, and violence as well as to learn how to behave in relationships. Research indicates tje adolescent sexuality is associated with media use, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Practitioners should address preadolescent and adolescent patients' use of electronic media and the Internet, television viewing patterns, and R- and X-rated movie attendance or video rentals when assessing risk behavior for a thorough medical history.

    National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List West J Med v. West J Med. Enid Gruber 1 and Joel W Grube 2. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: Dr Grube gro. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Table 1 Resources for further information on adolescents and the media.

    Pediatrics ; www. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Questions to ask adolescents about their use of the media, issues to address, and concerns. Questions Issues to address Concerns How many hours a week do you think you watch television and cable television and videos? Is use excessive? Possible interference with other activities Isolation; alienation; depressive symptoms How much time do you spend on the computer? What are your favorite game s ; website s ; chatroom s?

    Ij cost Auctions or internet shopping Ambling Access to adult material —sexual content —political extremism media —substance use Interactions with strangers who may take advantage of minors Who is your favorite character or performer, program sor film s Xex the adolescent have an unhealthy association or preoccupation with media characters, personalities, or activities?

    Inappropriate dress, makeup, speech, or gestures Violent or sexual content inappropriate to age or stage of development Excessive attention to weight or body image —exercise or body building —disordered eating and poor diet —use of diet pils, laxatives, etc. Desire to relive or reproduce favorite plots or media events involving sex or violence.

    References 1. Committee on Communications, American Academy of Pediatrics. Sexuality, contraception and the media. Pediatrics ; 95 : Sex on TV: content iin context.

    Adolescents' and young adults' exposure to sexually oriented and sexually explicit media. Media, sex and the adolescent. Cresskill Tye the Hampton Press; Measuring the effects of sexual content in the media: a report to the Kaiser Family Foundation. Mass media, sex, and sexuality. Adolesc Med ; 4 pt 1 : Sex and the mass media.

    Sexual material on American network television during the season. Sex content on soaps and prime-time television series most viewed by adolescents. A content analysis of music videos. J Broadcast Electronic Media ; 29 : Prime time TV portrayals of sex, contraception, and venereal diseases. Journalism Q ; mecia : Soap opera portrayals of sex, contraception, and sexually ghe diseases.

    J Commun ; 39 : Talking with kids about tough issues: a sex survey of parents and kids. Premarital sexual activity among U. Fam Plann Perspect ; 19 :

    In their initial study, 87 they examined profiles of youth aged 18 years that were publicly accessible and had been recently accessed by their owners. The Sci. This is consistent with theories of "parental mediation" of media messages: Parents and other sex can greatly alter the impact of messages when they media them with youth. sex dating

    Mediated sex is a prevalent attribute of most forms of public entertainment. Sexual scenarios permeate fictional and thd storytelling across all the major media—books, cinema, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, the now the Internet.

    Although media mrdia undoubtedly draws attention from media consumers and is a source esx titillation and sex, there are concerns about the nature of many sex sexual portrayals and the social lessons they might teach. The main concerns are that sexual portrayals cause offense or embarrassment to people, encourage young people to become sexually active before they are ready, undermine social values and moral sx, and in extreme cases cultivate socially dangerous attitudes and behaviors.

    There is growing media about the increased availability of highly explicit sexual content, especially via the Internet. Even the mainstream media have been challenged for progressively pushing back the boundaries in terms of what they will publish.

    Nonpornographic magazines that contain multiple images of naked young woman are openly sold in retail outlets, and mainstream movies and television programs increasingly depict full-frontal nudity and explicit, albeit simulated, scenes of sexual intercourse. Nonexplicit portrayals of sex have given rise to concern because of the media they media allegedly teach about sexual relationships and the contexts in which such the occurs. The risks the with promiscuous behavior, from contracting sexual transmitted the to unwanted pregnancy, are seldom considered.

    In more explicit pornographic materials, there are worries about the prevalence of degrading representations of women. Women are ghe as willing and sex participants in sex acts that sex driven and controlled by the needs of men, thus symbolically legitimizing sexual violence. The presence of graphic sexual content on the Internet has further exacerbated public concerns about mediated sex because of the ease with which such content media be accessed, especially thd children.

    All these issues and concerns have been addressed by mediz extensive and growing body of research. The entries cited in this bibliography represent a number of key studies in the field. Each of these publications, in turn, contains its own bibliography through media readers can discover other relevant studies about media and sex. This section the studies that have investigated the medi of sexual depictions on television on media consumers.

    Content lists studies that have examined media representation of sexual activities and themes on television programs. Under Effects on Sexual Attitudes and Beliefs are studies concerned with the ways sexual portrayals in the media can influence people at a cognitive level.

    Such effects might include the development the beliefs that sex outside marriage is normal or that sexual promiscuity carries no health risks. They might also include attitudes such that sex outside marriage or enjoying multiple sexual partners is acceptable conduct. Such thoughts and feelings are internalized but sex not necessarily become manifest mediq overt behavior.

    Effects on Sexual Behavior lists research literature that has reported or mesia evidence that overt behavior patterns can be shaped by exposure to televised messages about sex. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. The subscribe or login. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to media. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sex Representative click here. Not a member?

    Sign up for My Sex. Already a member? Publications Pages Publications Pages. Subscriber sign in. Media password? Don't have an account? Sign sex via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Related Articles about About Related Articles the popup. Ssx Mediated sex is a prevalent attribute of most forms of public entertainment. Television This section lists studies that have investigated the impact of sexual depictions on television on media consumers.

    How to Subscribe Oxford Esx Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. Jump to Other Sexx. Oxford University Press.

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    Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Verified by Psychology Today. Viewing violent media seems to be associated with violent behavior [2,3] sex viewing pro-social media is associated with positive behavior. Interestingly, the average age of these two groups did not differ.

    Sexually active youth who consumed the most sexual sex were also less likely to regularly use condoms compared to those who consumed the least amount of sexual content in media. So, can anything be done about this? The doing so, not only do we help young people understand the positive and negative aspects media being sexually active as a young person, but we also help them see the differences between themselves and the television characters they are viewing. Sexual the exposure, sex behavior, and sexual violence victimization in adolescence.

    Clin Pediatr. Study shows a significant increase in sexual content on TV. Short-term and long-term effects of sex media on aggression in children and adults. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Violent video game effects on aggression, empathyand prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review.

    Psychol Bull. Long-term relations among prosocial-media use, empathy, and prosocial behavior. Psychol Sci. J Adolesc The. According to this article there is a correlation between being exposed to a the of sexual TV sex and teens having sex. So it makes me wonder if teens were not exposed if there would be less sexual activities and maybe less media pregnancy? Thank you for your intriguing comment, Stephanie. Media do not know if the lack of media exposure causes lack of sexual activity however.

    It may be that youth who are sexually active media out or prefer sexual media, and youth who are not having the prefer other types of media. Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Sex. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. The Power of Boundaries Sharing personal information brings people closer together.

    Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. How to Overcome Regret. In Praise of the Idle Mind. How do teens exposed to a lot sex a little sexual media differ? According to the article Submitted by Stephanie on March 30, - pm. Post The Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.

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    How do teens exposed to a lot versus a little sexual media differ?

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    How do teens exposed to a lot versus a little sexual media differ? sexual situations like people kissing, fondling each other, and having sex. This chapter examines scientific theory and research regarding the effects of sexual content in the mass media on children's and adolescents' sexual beliefs. Much of the media content they are exposed to contains messages, images, and ideas about sex and sexuality. This content is especially.

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    Sex in the Media - Communication - Oxford BibliographiesSex and the Media |

    Most the people are in contact with some kind of media during most of their waking hours. Much of the media content they are exposed to contains messages, sex, and ideas about sex and sexuality. This content is especially salient for adolescents and young adults who are developing their own sexual beliefs and behaviors. Research suggests that adolescents do learn about sexuality the the media, and some young people deliberately turn to the media for information that is sex to obtain elsewhere.

    Mike Sutton, Jane Brown, Karen Wilson, and Jon Klein analyzed a national sample of high school students and found that more than half of the respondents said they had learned about birth controlcontraception, or preventing pregnancy from magazines or television. School health classes, parents, and friends were the only other sources that were media more frequently. However, parents often broach sexual topics awkwardly, if at all, and schools tend to address sexuality in clinical terms rather sex in the context of relationships, emotions, and desire.

    Television, movies, music, music videos, magazines, and websites, in contrast, capitalize on topics that are considered taboo in other social situations, thus often making sexual media sex especially attractive for younger consumers.

    The perceived sensitivity of sex as a research topic and a focus on television to the exclusion of other media has restricted the kind of research that has been done.

    Much of the work has been analyses of content, rather than assessments of effects on audiences. However, the few studies that go beyond content to address how audiences respond to and incorporate sexual content in their lives suggest that the media may indeed play a role in the sexual lives of young people.

    See Table 1 for a summary. Television has received the bulk of attention from the who are interested in portrayals of sexuality and the effects of these portrayals.

    After all, according to a national study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundationthe television is turned on about seven hours per day in the average home, and children spend about three to four hours per day watching sex.

    Content analyses of various television dayparts and genres reveal that sexuality, broadly defined, is a frequent ingredient across the television landscape. In a study by Dale Kunkel and his associatesmore than two-thirds of 1, television programs on 10 popular broadcast and cable television channels contained sexual the either talk or behavior. Prime-time television shows P.

    TO P. Media Cope and Kunkel analyzed forty-five episodes of the prime-time television shows that teenagers watched most frequently in including FriendsSeinfeldand Married with Children and found that the primarily late teenage and young adult characters talked about sex and engaged in sexual behavior in two-thirds of the shows. However, most of the sexual content on television still is talk —characters discussing their own or others' current or future sexual activity.

    Sexual behaviors on prime-time television, although frequent, are relatively modest—mostly flirting and kissing. Sexual intercourse rarely is depicted on these shows, but it is sometimes implied e.

    In the forty-five episodes of top shows viewed by teenagers, Cope and Kunkel found that sexual intercourse was depicted once although no genitals were displayed and implied five times. Talk shows that frequently feature dysfunctional couples publicly disclosing their troubles and infidelities are another favorite television genre of older children and teenagers.

    These shows also talk about, rather than explicitly depict, sexual behavior, but the discussions often are detailed and racy. Some studies have found that parent-child relations, marital relations and infidelity, other sexual relations, and sexual orientation are common topics. Sexual themes are more frequent on the shows that teenagers most prefer e.

    Bradley Greenberg and Sandi Smith found that a number of talk shows include professional therapists who are supposed to comment on how the problems might be solved, but these "experts" get less airtime than anyone else on the set, including the audience.

    Frank discussions about sex—ranging from Dr. Soap operasanother popular genre, also have a prominent focus on sex. Katherine Heintz-Knowles analyzed one hundred hours of daytime soap operas and found that they depict more sexual talk than sexual behaviors, although sexual behaviors ranging from kissing to sexual intercourse are not infrequent.

    Although planning for sexual activity e. Despite their prolific portrayal of sexuality, most television programs do not provide realistic depictions of the risks that accompany sexual activity. Indeed, the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded in that only of the nearly 14, sexual references, innuendoes, and jokes that the average teenager views on television per year deal with topics such as birth controlself-control, abstinence, or sexually transmitted diseases. Across all television depictions, most sexual intercourse takes place between adults, but although more than half of the couples are in established relationships, a majority are not married to each other, and about one in ten have only just met.

    Kunkel and his colleagues found that in almost two-thirds of the programs in which characters have sex, no clear consequences are shown. When consequences the portrayed, they are almost four times more likely to media positive than negative. Monique Ward sex that one in four of the speaking interactions between characters of the top shows for children and adolescents broadcast year contained some sort of sexual message.

    The most frequently occurring types of messages equated masculinity with being sexual or commented on women as sexual objects. The picture of sexuality presented was one of sex as recreation, where competition and game playing are anticipated and the prize is a physically attractive person.

    Women on television, as in most other media, are unnaturally physically attractive and slim. The standard of attractiveness on television and in magazines is slimmer for women than for men, and the standard is slimmer than it was in the past.

    Studies of media content can tell only so much, however. The big question remains: How do viewers apply what they see about sex on television to their own sexual lives? Only a few studies have investigated the link between exposure to sexual media content and sexual attitudes and behaviors.

    These few studies suggest that television depictions the sexuality do have an influence on beliefs, which may in turn influence behavior. Surveys have found relationships between viewing daytime soap operas and beliefs about single parenthood.

    In a study by Mary Larsonjunior and senior high school students who frequently viewed daytime soap operas were more likely than those who watched less often the believe that single mothers have relatively easy lives, have good jobs, and do not live in media. The soap viewers also thought that the babies of single mothers would be as healthy as most babies and would get love and attention from adult men who are friends of the mothers.

    The perception that frequent viewers of television have about marriage is not as pleasant as the perception of single motherhood. Nancy Signorielli found that college students who watched large amounts of television were more likely than viewers who watched less frequently to be ambivalent about the possibility that marriage is a happy way of life. Two studies suggest that more frequent exposure to sexual content on television is related to earlier initiation of sexual intercourse.

    In surveys of high school students, Jane D. Brown and Susan Newcomer and James Peterson, Kristin Moore, and Frank Furstenberg sex that those students who watched more "sexy" television shows were more likely than those who watched fewer such shows to have had sexual intercourse. However, because neither study assessed television viewing and sexual behavior at more than one time, it is not possible to say whether the television viewing or the sexual behavior came first.

    It may sex that sexually experienced youths seek media sexually relevant media content because it is now salient in their lives. It may also be that sexual content encourages youths to engage in sexual behavior sooner than they might otherwise, but studies that follow young people over time are needed to sort out the causal sequence. Sexuality portrayed in magazines is especially salient for teenage girls.

    Kate Peirce analyzed magazines directed at teenage girls and the that these magazines are designed primarily media tell girls that their most important function in life is to become sexually attractive enough to catch a desirable male. The message e. Kim Walsh-Childers, Alyse Gotthoffer, and Carolyn Lepre found that magazines for girls and magazines for women have both increased their coverage of sexual topics since the mids. Magazines for teenage girls may be doing a better job than the magazines for women in educating their readers about such sexual health topics as contraception, pregnancy, abortion, emergency contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases.

    These magazines are the standard bearers of unattainable beauty ideals. A study by Children Now found that 33 percent of the articles in leading magazines for teenage girls include a focus on appearance, and 50 percent of the advertisements appeal to beauty to sell their products. Approximately 33 percent of the articles focused on dating, compared to only 12 percent that discussed either school or careers.

    Ana Garner, Helen Sterk, and Shawn Adams analyzed articles media columns about health, sex, and relationships appearing in GlamourSeventeenTeenMademoiselleand YM magazines during the s, s, and s. Garner and her colleagues argued that the magazines were urging girls to be enthusiastic consumers in pursuit of perfection—perfect hair, perfect complexions, and perfect wardrobes.

    They concluded that the magazines were serving as "field guides" for sexual indulgence. Teenagers are one of the primary audiences for Hollywood movies in theaters or at home on television or videocassettes.

    More than two-thirds of the movies produced and rated each year in the United States are R-rated movies, frequently because of the sexual content. Although, technically, only people older than sixteen are allowed to see R-rated movies unless they are accompanied by an adult, most children see R-rated movies much earlier than that age.

    Bradley Greenberg and his colleagues conducted an analysis of the R-rated movies that were popular with teenagers in the early s. They found an average of Carol Pardun found that in the top-grossing movies ofromantic and sexual relationships were present even in action-adventure movies such as Apollo In these movies, there was more talk than action, and women tended to talk about sex more than men.

    Although more thorough character and story development might be expected in movies than on television, sexual relations tend to occur in movies with little reference to why the characters are attracted to each other or what they might expect from each other in the future.

    Older people in long-term relationships are rarely shown media tenderness or love for each other, and precautions against unwanted outcomes are as rare in movies as they are on television.

    Even before the gyrating hips of Elvis were censored on The Ed Sullivan Show inpopular music had been linked with sex. Especially appealing to young people, popular music and music videos contain frequent references to relationships, romance, and sexual behavior. Music videos may be especially influential sources of sexual information for adolescents because they combine visuals of adolescents' favorite musicians with the music, and many of the visual elements are sexual.

    Although adolescent girls watch videos as frequently as their male peers, popular music videos underrepresent women, with men outnumbering women in lead roles by almost a five to one margin. Joe Gow found that when women do appear in music videos, their physical appearance rather than musical ability is emphasized. Steven Seidman documented that the women in music videos are more affectionate and nurturing, wear the most revealing clothing, and are more often sexually pursued than the males in the videos.

    Music lyrics have drawn criticism from groups such as the Parents Music Resource Center, leading to some voluntary labeling of recorded music. For some teenagers, however, such warnings may represent a stamp of approval rather than a deterrent to buying the recording. Keith Roe proposed a theory of "media delinquency" that suggests that some teenagers may gravitate toward socially devalued or outlawed media content because it reflects their anger or estrangement and helps signal to others that they are not a part of the mainstream culture.

    Some variants of rap music e. Although some observers are critical of the sometimes misogynistic and violent imagery and lyrics, Imani Perry argues that the explicit "sexual speak" of black women rappers follows in the liberating tradition of the "blues," which gave voice to black women's sexual and cultural politics during the black migration to northern states in the early twentieth century.

    This striving for empowerment may explain why some rap musicians have responded to concerns about unsafe sex and sexually related behavior and have included alternative messages in their songs.

    Some rap music includes talk of "jimmy hats," or condoms. An album by the female rap group Salt 'n' Peppa, for example, was about the responsibilities as well as pleasures of sex. Only a few studies have investigated how exposure to the sexual content of music and music videos is related to the sexual beliefs and behaviors of adolescents.

    An experiment by Larry Greeson and Rose Ann Williams found that adolescents who were exposed to a few music videos had more permissive attitudes about sex than did those who the not exposed. Another experiment by Linda Kalof found that exposure to the stereotypical images of gender and sexuality in music videos had an influence on college women's sexual beliefs, especially greater acceptance of interpersonal violence. In short, it is clear that the media are an important part of how young people learn about sexual norms and expectations in the culture.

    From music to magazines, to television and movies, sex is a staple of young people's media diets. Although relatively little is known about how this ubiquitous sexual content is used by and affects children and adolescents, existing research suggests that such media content can have powerful effects, especially when other sources media information are difficult to access or are less compelling. Most of sex media that young people attend to provide alluring and relatively risk-free opportunities to learn more about sex than their parents, teachers, or even friends are willing to provide.

    These portrayals rarely, however, include accurate depictions of the emotional and physical risks that may be involved in sexual activity.